DENTAL CARIES AND GINGIVITIS AMONGST PREGNANT WOMEN: A SAMPLE FROM URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF KARACHI
Pregnancy is a special state which is related to emotional and physiological changes of different parts of the body including oral cavity. Gingival and periodontal changes during pregnancy have been well-documented. Hormonal changes due to fluctuations in levels of estrogen and progesterone in the body during pregnancy make the woman more susceptible to oral infections and gum diseases and these dental problems not only affect expectant mothers but also the developing baby.
A cluster sampling technique was used and 200 pregnant women attending department of obstetrics and gynecology, Baqai Hospital, Nazimabad and Fatima Hospital, Baqai Medical University were recruited. The age of the women ranged from 18 to 35 years. The sample size was calculated by taking 85% prevalence rate and computed using Open Epi (version 3.01) at 95%confidence interval and a=5%. Data were entered and analyzed by IBM SPSS version 22. Mean and standard deviation were assessed and independent t test was done to find out the mean DMFT amongst urban and rural areas. Chi square test was done to compare the frequencies between two groups.
The burden of dental caries amongst rural and urban pregnant women was reported high with a rural prevalence of 56.7% and 43.3% of urban pregnant women. 71.4% of urban pregnant women reported with bleeding gums and 28.6% of rural pregnant women.
The present study concluded that dental caries was prevalent in rural locality and gingivitis in urban locality.
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