• Muhammad Waqar Hussain BDS, FCPS, Associate Professor Prosthodontics, Bakhtawar Amin Medical & Dental College, Multan.
  • Muhammad Umar Shah BDS, FCPS, FCD, PGD, Assistant Professor Prosthodontist, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University Al Ahsa, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia
  • Faiza Awais BDS, M PHIL, Assistant Professor, Rashid Latif Dental College
  • Sara Shahnawaz BDS, Demonstrator, Lahore Medical and Dental College
  • Khezran Qamar BDS, FCPS, Associate Professor, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore
  • Kisra Zainab BDS, House Officer, Prosthodontics, Lahore Medical and Dental College Lahore
  • Gotam Das BDS, FCPS, Assistant Professor Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Divine proportions, Complete denture fabrication, Cephalometery, Golden ratio


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the ratios between bones of the skull and face of edentulous patients, before and after complete denture insertion through cephalometry and evaluate the presence of divine proportion between bones. This was done to evaluate the fact that after esthetically restoring the vertical dimension whether the proportions between skull bones are near or far from divine proportions. If there is existence of divine ratio then this proportion can be used for complete denture fabrication in vertical and horizontal planes to evaluate esthetics. It was a cross sectional study carried out in five months duration from December 2018 to April 2019.

Thirty edentulous patients 15 males and 15 females, fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected from the department of Prosthodontics, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore. Non probability purposive sampling was used for subjects selection. Informed consent was taken.

Patients complete dentures were fabricated by conventional method. Two standardized lateral cephalometric head films were made of every patient, first without denture in mandibular rest position and second with denture in maximum intercuspation. The means of five different ratios before and after denture insertion were analyzed statistically by using paired t test. The difference between the mean ratios of face and skull bone with the golden ratio (1.618) was also calculated. The ratio R2 ( N- Me/ANS-Me) which is related to total anterior facial height and lower anterior facial height, were closer to golden ratio after the insertion of complete denture. Furthermore R3 (Or-Me /ANS-PNS) also showed ratios closer to divine proportion.

How to Cite
Muhammad Waqar Hussain, Muhammad Umar Shah, Faiza Awais, Sara Shahnawaz, Khezran Qamar, Kisra Zainab, & Gotam Das. (2020). DIVINE PROPORTIONS ASSESSMENT IN EDENTULOUS PATIENTS BEFORE AND AFTER COMPLETE DENTURE INSERTION. Pakistan Oral & Dental Journal, 39(4), 398-401. Retrieved from https://podj.com.pk/index.php/podj/article/view/506